Formative Assessments

Formative assessment, in my opinion, not only provide feedback to students but also to teachers. A primary piece of information gained is an understanding of the status of your student’s abilities and conceptual understanding. Without this vital piece of information, one has no real basis on which to evaluate student progress or to inform one’s own instructional practices. A Constructivist learning environment cannot exist without formative assessments. It’s important to note that formative assessments are not necessarily the piece that gets graded (as opposed to summative assessments.)

The following are general formative assessments.

Using Knowledge of Structures and Functions. Students will demonstrate a knowledge of the elements and principles of design and show an aesthetic awareness of the visual and tactile qualities in the environment that are found in works of art.

Below Basic

Basic

Proficient

Advanced

 
Thinking About Art With prompting, students will describe how artists use Elements and Principles to produce different viewer responses to an artwork. With prompting, students will analyze and describe the composition of an artwork using appropriate artistic vocabulary. Students will independently analyze and describe the compositions of various artworks using appropriate artistic vocabulary.
Making Art With prompting, students will select and apply various Elements and Principles of Design to communicate general ideas. With prompting, students will create artworks that use compositionally appropriate structures and functions to solve specific visual arts problems. Students will independently create artworks that use compositionally appropriate structures and functions to solve specific visual arts problems.
Understands and Applies Media, Techniques, and Processes. Students effectively use a variety of subject matter, tools, media, and techniques to visually communicate ideas in artworks.

Below Basic

Basic

Proficient

Advanced

 
Observational Drawing: Value The range of values is minimal, typically three to five are apparent. Dark lines exist around shapes and line is a dominant element used to define an object’s shape. Value contributes little to an illusion of depth. Values are grainy and lines may be scribbled. Five to seven steps in value are apparent. Objects may be filled with local value and some lines may surround objects. Values are evenly rendered with some slight pencil marks apparent. Drawings have a full value range of nine distinct steps from lightest to darkest value. Dark lines to not exist around objects. Rendering is even; little or no pencil lines exist.
Art Criticism. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to the task, purpose, and audience.

Below Basic

Basic

Proficient

Advanced

 
Describe Uses at least some descriptors to describe an artwork. Descriptors may partially be based on opinion rather than observable fact. Uses multiple observably factual descriptors do describe an artwork. Uses a variety of observably factual descriptors to richly describe artistic characteristics of specific artworks.
Analyze With assistance can identify at least one element or principle. Identifies and adequately explains the significant elements and principles present in the work. Identifies the significant elements and principles within the work and the affect they have on the artwork.
Interpret Is able to express a personal opinion about artworks: “This is what I think.” Based on gathered information, the student is able to come to a conclusion about the artist’s intention: “This is why I think this way.” Using supporting detail based upon gathered information, the student articulates a personally-relevant conclusion about an artist’s intention and/or purpose.
Judge Student is able to state the social value of an artwork; perhaps only to articulate whether or not they personally “like” an artwork. Student can articulate how the work benefits others and defend his/her personal opinion of an artwork Student is able to draw conclusions from history and contemporary culture to express reasoned, personal opinions about the social value of specific artworks.

The following is a specific example of a common formative assessment tool for Grade 6 Art. (Please note that the rigor has been substantially increased to acknowledge both CCSS and the upcoming Smarter Balanced Assessments in other content areas.)

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “abstract”.

Question:After Picasso’s Blue Period he co-founded Cubism, which is an abstract style of art.
Correct Response:This style of art is based on an identifiable subject, which is simplified and/or rearranged.
Distractors:This style of art has no identifiable subject matter.
This style of art applies the use of linear perspective.
This style of art is highly realistic and deals with the subconscious mind.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Abstract describes an artwork based on identifiable subject, but with few or no details, and whose visual elements are simplified or rearranged.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect:  Non-objective artworks have no recognizable subject matter such as figures, flowers, buildings, etc. Abstract describes an artwork based on identifiable subject, but with few or no details, and whose visual elements are simplified or rearranged.
Incorrect: Linear perspective is a technique of creating the illusion of depth on a flat surface. Abstract describes an artwork based on identifiable subject, but with few or no details, and whose visual elements are simplified or rearranged.
Incorrect: Surrealism is a 20th century artistic movement that attempts to express the working of the subconscious mind. Abstract describes an artwork based on identifiable subject, but with few or no details, and whose visual elements are simplified or rearranged.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “ceramic”.

Question:Because of its relative durability, ceramic is an important part of the history of Ancient Greece.
Correct Response:“Ceramic” refers to objects made from clay and fired in a kiln to a permanent form.
Distractors:“Ceramic” refers to the application of pigment to fresh plaster.
“Ceramic” refers to a six thousand year old process used to form bronze.
“Ceramic” refers to the architectural reliefs decorating columns.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect: Ceramics are objects made of clay and fired in a kiln to a permanent form.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Fresco painting involves the application of pigments to fresh plaster whereas ceramics are objects made of clay and fired in a kiln to a permanent form.
Incorrect. Ceramic firing has been known for many thousands of years. However, ceramics are objects made of clay and fired in a kiln to a permanent form.
Incorrect. Most columns were carved from stone, whereas ceramics are objects made of clay and fired in a kiln to a permanent form.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “subject matter”.

Question:An art teacher asked Susan to describe the subject matter of her drawing.
Correct Response:Susan described the important things that she represented in her drawing, such as people, buildings, trees, etc.
Distractors:Susan described the process she used to determine the quality of her drawing.
Susan described how she arranged the art elements in her drawing to achieve a unified composition.
Susan described how her drawing should be interpreted by a viewer.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Subject matter refers to the things that are represented in an artwork, including such things as people, buildings, trees, objects, etc. Usually, the subject matter is also a focal point of an artwork.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. The process of evaluating the quality of an artwork is referred to as “critique.” Subject matter refers to the things that are represented in an artwork, including such things as people, buildings, trees, objects, etc. Usually, the subject matter is also a focal point of an artwork.
Incorrect. Artists use Principles of Design to create harmonious arrangements within an artwork. Subject matter refers to the things that are represented in an artwork, including such things as people, buildings, trees, objects, etc. Usually, the subject matter is also a focal point of an artwork.
Incorrect. Viewer interpretation is a product of art criticism. Subject matter refers to the things that are represented in an artwork, including such things as people, buildings, trees, objects, etc. Usually, the subject matter is also a focal point of an artwork.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “art criticism”.

Question:Why do we follow the steps of art criticism when we look at or talk about a work of art?
Correct Response:These steps are a system that allows us to discuss the characteristics of an artwork and make informed judgments.
Distractors:Following these steps will help us to determine how much the art is worth.
We need to follow these steps in order to be able to create the work of art ourselves.
It is necessary to follow these steps to avoid hurting the artist’s feelings.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Art criticism is a systematic way to discuss the characteristics of an artwork.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. The collectability of an artwork, the rarity, the desirability, and the marketplace all determine the actual monetary value of an artwork. Art criticism is a systematic way to discuss the characteristics of an artwork.
Incorrect. Teachers and masters provide students with positive critique (or guidance) to create artworks. Art criticism is a systematic way to discuss the characteristics of an artwork.
Incorrect. Although we might be diplomatic in how we speak about an artwork, art criticism is a systematic way to discuss the characteristics of an artwork.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “non-objective”.

Question:Throughout the centuries, there have been many different styles of art.  Which of the following is an example of non-objective art?
Correct Response:
Distractors:
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. This example does not have any recognizable representative subject matter, such as trees or flowers or people or objects – thus it is “non” objective.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. This example has realistic and recognizable subject matter. Non-objective artwork does not have any recognizable representative subject matter, such as trees or flowers or people or objects – thus it is “non” objective.
Incorrect. This example has recognizable objects. Non-objective artwork does not have any recognizable representative subject matter, such as trees or flowers or people or objects – thus it is “non” objective.
Incorrect. This example has realistic and recognizable subject matter. Non-objective artwork does not have any recognizable representative subject matter, such as trees or flowers or people or objects – thus it is “non” objective.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “symbol”.

Question:You visit a museum to see the painting, The Arnolfini Marriage by Jan van Eyck. On the tag beside the painting you read that the artist has incorporated several hidden meanings about love and marriage.
Correct Response:To discover the hidden meaning you must make note of the various symbols used by the artist.
Distractors:To discover the hidden meaning you must carefully examine the painted textures.
To discover the hidden meaning you must read about the Dutch culture of the time it was painted.
To discover the hidden meaning you must compare the various painting techniques used by the artist.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Symbols, such as the image of the bride placing her hand into the left hand of her fiancé is a hidden message about love and marriage.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Textures are part of a painter’s technique, even when they are expressive in nature. Symbols, such as the image of the bride placing her hand into the left hand of her fiancé is a hidden message about love and marriage.
Incorrect. Although there are elements of Dutch culture evident in the subject matter, symbols, such as the image of the bride placing her hand into the left hand of her fiancé is a hidden message about love and marriage.
Incorrect. A hidden message may be interpreted without comparing multiple examples of an artist’s work. Symbols, such as the image of the bride placing her hand into the left hand of her fiancé is a hidden message about love and marriage.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “realistic”.

Question:Some artists depict familiar scenes and events as they actually appear in nature in the belief that subject matter should be shown true to life, without stylization or idealization.
Correct Response:These artists might choose to create a still life drawing in a realistic style.
Distractors:These artists might choose to create a still life drawing using abstract style.
These artists might choose to create a still life drawing using non-objective shapes.
These artists might choose to create a still life drawing using surrealism to reference their dreams.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. A realistic style shows objects as they appear to be in real life, not exaggerated, cartoonish, or stylized.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Abstraction involves simplification or exaggeration. A realistic style shows objects as they appear to be in real life, not exaggerated, cartoonish, or stylized.
Incorrect. Non-objective artworks do not represent people, places or things in the natural world. A realistic style shows objects as they appear to be in real life, not exaggerated, cartoonish, or stylized.
Incorrect. Surrealism represents fantastic imagery of the non-real or subconscious world. A realistic style shows objects as they appear to be in real life, not exaggerated, cartoonish, or stylized.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “symmetry or symmetrical”.

Question:Your art teacher has asked you to draw an accurate frontal portrait, like the one illustrated above.  Which Principle of Design would be most appropriate for you to use?
Correct Response:You decide to use symmetry to visually balance the different parts of the face.
Distractors:You decide to use geometric shapes to simplify your portrait into an abstraction.
You decide to exaggerate facial proportions to emphasize the most important characteristic.
You decide to use complementary colors to make the face contrast with the background.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. The human face is largely symmetrical, where one side is a near mirror copy of the other.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. An abstract image would not be proportionally accurate as would a generally symmetrical drawing, where one side is a near mirror copy of the other.
Incorrect. An exaggerated caricature would not be proportionally accurate as would a generally symmetrical drawing, where one side is a near mirror copy of the other.
Incorrect. Complimentary colors might help to separate the face from the background, whereas the human face is largely symmetrical, where one side is a near mirror copy of the other – a good starting point for an accurate drawing.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “2D”.

Question:Choose the supplies that would be most suitable for creating a 2D artwork.
Correct Response:Print block, gouge, ink, brayer, and paper.
Distractors:Plaster, hammer, chisel, and rasp.
Clay, slump mold, and elephant ear sponge.
Newspaper, cardboard, tape, papiere mache paste.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Together, these items would most appropriately be used to create a block print, which is a 2D artwork.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Together, these items would most appropriately be used to create a sculpture, which is a 3D artwork.
Incorrect. Together, these items would most appropriately be used to create a clay form, which is a 3D artwork.
Incorrect. Together, these items would most appropriately be used to create papiere mache, which is a 3D artwork.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “form”.

Question:Although the pottery of Maria Martinez is notable for the geometric shapes of the surface design, the other important aspect of her work is form she chose to use.
Correct Response:In art, “form” refers to an object’s actual 3D quality.
Distractors:In art, “form” refers to the document or questionnaire an artist uses to plan the firing of pottery.
In art, “form” refers to the variety of styles an artist chooses to use.
In art, “form” refers to a system or method of throwing on a pottery wheel.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. 3D and form refer to volume, height, width and depth. Maria Martinez created clay forms that were three dimensional.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. The pottery plan is part of the process of firing. 3D and form refer to volume, height, width and depth. Maria Martinez created clay forms that were three dimensional.
Incorrect. An artist’s style refers to the visual “look” associated with that artist. 3D and form refer to volume, height, width and depth. Maria Martinez created clay forms that were three dimensional.
Incorrect. Techniques are important to the successful structure of a clay form but 3D and form refer to volume, height, width and depth. Maria Martinez created clay forms that were three dimensional.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “medium”.

Question:Your classroom is assigned to create a large, permanent mural for the front entrance of the school building. Your teacher asks your class to discuss the best medium to use.
Correct Response:Your class discusses the pros and cons of different types of paint.
Distractors:Your class discusses the best brushes for the job.
Your class discusses the best way to prepare the surface for the paint.
Your class discusses the best method for applying paint.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Paint is an artistic medium.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Brushes are painters tools. Paint is an artistic medium.
Incorrect. The wall surface is an important consideration, as is the process of preparation. However, paint is an artistic medium.
Incorrect. The application of paint is varied by each artist’s technique. Paint is an artistic medium.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “picture plane”.

Question:To establish the picture plane, a painter must first establish what?  
Correct Response:The painter must define the borders of the artwork.
Distractors:The painter must define a figure-ground relationship.
The painter must choose appropriate colors to create atmospheric perspective.
The painter must select a vanishing point and horizon line.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect.  The picture plane refers to the flat surface or plane within which an artist organizes the elements of a picture, thus the borders of an artwork are an important consideration for establishing the picture plane.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. The figure ground refers to the relationship between positive and negative shapes.  The picture plane refers to the flat surface or plane within which an artist organizes the elements of a picture, thus the borders of an artwork are an important consideration for establishing the picture plane.
Incorrect. Atmospheric perspective refers to the choices of color and value an artist uses to create a sense of depth within a painting. The picture plane refers to the flat surface or plane within which an artist organizes the elements of a picture, thus the borders of an artwork are an important consideration for establishing the picture plane.
Incorrect. Vanishing points and horizon lines are important for establishing the illusion of perspective within a picture plane. The picture plane itself refers to the flat surface or plane within which an artist organizes the elements of a picture, thus the borders of an artwork are an important consideration for establishing the picture plane.

Grade __________

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “overlap”.

Question:Your art teacher suggests that your drawing might be improved by incorporating greater depth.
Correct Response:Your rearrange objects in your drawing so that they appear to overlap.
Distractors:You rearrange objects in your drawing so that there is more negative space.
You rearrange objects in your drawing so that objects appear side by side.
You rearrange objects in your drawing so that objects are balanced asymmetrically.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Overlapping is a technique in which the artist creates the illusion of depth by placing one object in front of another.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Negative space is the area not occupied by objects or figures in an artwork. Overlapping is a technique in which the artist creates the illusion of depth by placing one object in front of another.
Incorrect. Overlapping is a technique in which the artist creates the illusion of depth by placing one object in front of another. Objects that appear side by side would not give the viewer a clue about how close the viewer is to one object or the other, or provide a sense of scale.
Incorrect. Symmetrical balance is where objects on one side of an artwork mirror size and position of objects on the other side. Overlapping is a technique in which the artist creates the illusion of depth by placing one object in front of another.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “volume”.

Question:We think of forms as having volume because they are three dimensional, having height, width, and thickness. Which are not examples of volume?
Correct Response:Squares, circles, triangles, and ovals.
Distractors:Cylinders, cones, cubes, and spheres.
Doors, cars, shoes, and candy.
Pancakes, coins, notebook paper, and fabric.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Squares, circles, triangles, and ovals are two-dimensional shapes and do not have three dimensional form or volume.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. These examples are all three dimensional in nature and as a result all can be described as having three dimensional qualities of form and volume.
Incorrect. These examples are all three dimensional in nature and as a result all can be described as having three dimensional qualities of form and volume.
Incorrect. These examples are all three dimensional in nature and as a result all can be described as having three dimensional qualities of form and volume.

This item addresses the learner’s understanding of the artistic term, “chiaroscuro”.

Question:During your visit to the art museum the curator guiding your tour stops at one painting to discuss how Caravaggio made use of chiaroscuro.
Correct Response:The curator is referring to the “light/dark” tonal contrasts used to suggest volume.
Distractors:The curator is referring to the way that alla prima painting results in a direct, expressive style.
The curator is referring to the effect of building up color, layer after layer by glazing.
The curator is referring to the illusionistic foreshortening effect of perspective.
Feedback to correct responseCorrect. Chiaroscuro literally translates from the Italian meaning for “light-dark.” The use of value contrasts to represent the effects of light and shadow and to create a very distinctive artistic style that represents volume in a very dramatic manner.
Feedback to distractorsIncorrect. Painting alla prima is usually a very painterly effect that may or may not have anything to do with lights or darks, but rather relies more on paint strokes and color vibrancy. Chiaroscuro literally translates from the Italian meaning for “light-dark.” The use of value contrasts to represent the effects of light and shadow and to create a very distinctive artistic style that represents volume in a very dramatic manner.
Incorrect. While it is very likely that chiaroscuro techniques would rely heavily on glazing, the appropriate response refers to the way in which chiaroscuro literally translates from the Italian meaning for “light-dark.” The use of value contrasts to represent the effects of light and shadow and to create a very distinctive artistic style that represents volume in a very dramatic manner.
Incorrect. Foreshortening is an effect of perspective – a visual trick that may be used in a variety of styles. Chiaroscuro literally translates from the Italian meaning for “light-dark.” The use of value contrasts to represent the effects of light and shadow and to create a very distinctive artistic style that represents volume in a very dramatic manner.

This is a developmental example of a formative assessment plan for a high school Drawing course.

DRAWING Fall Semester

At the end of … What skills should be assessed? What knowledge should be assessed? What product should be in evidence? What writing or thought process should be demonstrated? What else?

Week 6

GRAPHITE

  • Create a range of ten smoothly graduated values through varied pressure.
  • Use an eraser as a tool to create a range of values.
  • Blend values to create new values.
  • Use blending tools such as stumps and tortillons to modify values.
  •  Identify and use a range of values to create the illusion of complex form.
  • Identify and use gesture lines and implied lines.
  • Identify and use implied shapes.
  • Identify artworks from Cubism
  • Create original artwork that communicates ideas through Big Ideas
  • Discuss personal beliefs about the nature of art
  • Discuss and develop answers to questions about art, such as: What is art?, Why do responses vary? Who decides what makes an artwork special, valuable or good?
  • Compare and contrast two artworks from different times and places.

 

Week 12

PEN & INK

  • Create a range of seven graduated values using hatching, crosshatching, and stippling techniques.
  • Use hatching, crosshatching, and stippling to create texture.
  • Combine a change in value with texture.
  • Identify and use hatching, crosshatching, stippling and calligraphic lines.
  • Identify and use perspective techniques to create the illusion of space (two-point linear perspective, overlapping, and change of size, detail, placement, value, contrast, color.)
  • Contrast textures within the same artwork.
  • Identify artworks from Surrealism.
  • Create original artworks using the following as subject matter: still life
  • Create original artwork that communicates ideas through Big Ideas
  • Compare and contrast two artworks from the same artist.
  • Compare and contrast two artworks having the same subject matter.

Week 18

CHARCOAL & PASTEL

  • Demonstrate proficiency using four drawing medias (graphite, charcoal, oil pastel, pen and ink)
  • Blend colors to create new colors.
  • Identify and demonstrate the illusion of complex form in a two-dimensional artwork.
  • Identify and use arbitrary color and symbolic color.
  • Identify and use foreshortened figure proportions.
  • Identify artworks from German Expressionism.
  • Create original artworks using the following as subject matter: human figure
  • Create original artwork that communicates ideas through Big Ideas
 
  • With one artwork: describe artwork; analyze the use of elements and principles in the work
  • Interpret the meaning of the work (subject, theme, symbolism, message communicated)
  • Judge the work from various perspectives: Showing a real or idealized image of life (Imitationalism); Expressing feelings (Emotionalism/ Expressionism); Emphasis on elements and principles (Formalism); Serving a purpose in the society or culture (Functionalism)
  • Connect meanings of elements in art with terms in music, theatre, or dance
  • Compare and contrast the characteristics of two artworks

DRAWING Spring Semester

At theend of … What skills should be assessed? What knowledge should be assessed? What product should be in evidence? What writing or thought process should be demonstrated? What else?

Week 6

WATERCOLOR PAINT

  • Demonstrate the following watercolor techniques: masking, wet on wet, dry brush, glaze, transparent layering, scratch, resist, lifting, continuous wash, graduated wash.
  • Apply watercolor to create simulated and invented textures.
  • Mix watercolors to match observed hues.
  • Blend colors to create new colors.
  • Combine a change in color with texture.
  • Select and use appropriate size and brush type.
  • Identify and use local color.
  • Identify and demonstrate the illusion of transparent and reflective forms in two-dimensional artwork.
  • From observation, identify and use appropriate perspective techniques to create the illusion of space.
  • Identify artworks from American Regionalism
  • Create original artworks using the following as subject matter: landscape
  • Create original artwork that communicates ideas through Big Ideas
  • Define aesthetics as the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and value of art
  • Explain how historical events and social ideas are reflected in artworks from selected cultures or historical time periods.
  • Compare and contrast the function of art in culture/society in two artworks

 

Week 12

ACRYLIC PAINT & MIXED MEDIA

  • Select and paint expressively (hard edge, soft edge, painterly brush strokes.)
  • Blend colors to create new colors.
  • Combine a change in color with texture.
  • Mix tempera/acrylic paints to match observed hues.
  • Select and use appropriate size and brush type.
  • Identify and use complex shapes.
  • Identify and use color theory including color intensity and split-complementary color scheme.
  • Identify artworks from Photorealism
  • Create original artworks using the following as subject matter: architecture
  • Create original artwork that communicates ideas through Big Ideas
  • Explain how historical events and social ideas are reflected in artworks from selected cultures or historical time periods.
  • Compare and contrast the ideas and beliefs of culture exemplified in two artworks

 

Week 18

PRINTMAKING & COLLAGE

  • Demonstrate one printmaking process that requires registering (e.g., reduction block, multiple block, serigraphy, etching.)
  • Create a titled, numbered, signed edition.

 

  • Identify and use complex shapes.
  • Identify artworks from Post Modernism
  • Create original artworks using the following as subject matter: culture or historical connection
  • Create original artwork that communicates ideas through Big Ideas
  • With one artwork: describe artwork; analyze the use of elements and principles in the work
  • Interpret the meaning of the work (subject, theme, symbolism, message communicated)
  • Judge the work from various perspectives: Showing a real or idealized image of life (Imitationalism); Expressing feelings (Emotionalism/ Expressionism); Emphasis on elements and principles (Formalism); Serving a purpose in the society or culture (Functionalism)
  • Explain how historical events and social ideas are reflected in artworks from selected cultures or historical time periods.
  • Compare and contrast the materials/ technology of two artworks

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